The Martian Federation
An organization dedicated to establishing an independent colony on the Planet Mars using private funds.

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The New Martian Declaration of
The Federation of Martian and Asteroidal Republics (FMAR):
In order to preserve and promote the traditional western values of freedom and opportunity secured through personal responsibility, representative democratic government with limited powers, and the rule of law based on Judeo-Christian principles and in order to secure to ourselves and our posterity the economic, political and spiritual benefits afforded by the equitable exploitation of extraterrestrial resources, we the concerned and invested people of Earth do establish this Federation of Martian and Asteroidal Republics and charge it with the task of establishing the first permanently inhabited human settlement on or near Mars using private funds donated by individuals with the goal of establishing free, independent and sovereign republics on these celestial bodies. (modified 6-17-05, REL)
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Our Plan for Establishing a Colony on Mars
Updated Nov. 18, 2001
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Goal and Financing Updated January 28, 2004
The goal of the FMAR is to establish a human settlement on Mars and to lay the foundations for a free Martian nation by establishing this settlement without the sponsorship or control of Terran nation states or Terran supranational organizations (like the U.N., the European Union, or the C.I.S.). Instead, we plan to raise money, by asking for voluntary contributions from individuals. By contributing to our organization these individuals prove themselves to be invested in the colonization of Mars and the Asteroids, and they will form the first electors of twelve Martian and one Asteroidal republic.

Our first goal is to send a probe to the moons of Mars to look for water in the form of subterranean ice. We want to finance this first mission by raising about $50 million dollars through voluntary contributions from members of our organization. Once we land a successful probe on Phobos and/or Deimos we will then make an official claim to the moons of Mars and begin raising further funds by selling mineral rights to those moons. If we find water, we then hope to raise about $50 billion dollars to send a manned mission to the moons of Mars. Once we land people on the Martian moons we will make a claim to Mars itself and start selling land on Mars and minieral right to the Asteroids in order to raise money to establish a permanent base on the Moons of Mars, and, later a permanent settlement on the surface of Mars itself.

The first probe will carry a plaque of all those who contributed to the mission. This plaque will claim the moons of Mars on their behalf. They will recieve a portion of the money raised by selling mineral rights to the moons of Mars. Those who contribute in 2005 will recieve three times the amount they contributed, and those who contributed the year the probe was launched will receive two times what they contributed. Those who contributed in the years in between will get an amount gradually decreasing from 3 to 2 times what they contributed.
Step 1 -- The First Unmanned Mission Updated January 28,2004
The first mission to the Martian system will be a robotic lander to one of the moons of Mars, Phobos or Deimos. Based on the low calculated density for these objects, it is possible that these moons are captured asteroids with a composition high in volatiles such as water ice and dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide). Finding water on Phobos or Deimos would provide a huge boost to Martian colonization and would create a tremendous economic incentive for establishing the first base in the Martian system on one of those moons. Such a base could be established much more cheaply than one on Mars itself. This station would serve as an outpost for further exploration of both Mars and the Asteroids.

One of the most significant technological challenges of a manned mission to Mars is the return trip. It takes a significant amount of fuel to escape from the surface of Mars into Mars orbit. This fuel must either be brought from Earth or manufactured on Mars. Manufacturing this fuel on Mars involves the use of powerplants for producing energy, and chemical equipment for producing fuel from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, all of which must be brought from Earth. Furthermore, some raw materials, such as hydrogen, the launch vehicle and equipment for servicing the launch vehicle must also be brought from Earth. On Earth a huge infrastructure has been set up to create the fuel and maintain the vehicles necessary to launch humans into orbit. Even though it is much easier to escape from the surface of Mars into Mars orbit than to escape from the surface of Earth into Earth orbit, all the infrastructure necessary to launch people back into orbit from the surface of Mars would have to be sent from Earth at significant expense. If, instead, fuel for the return trip was brought from Earth, it would be even more expensive, making a trip to Mars financially virtually impossible. However, being able to produce fuel in Mars orbit would mean that fuel to return from Mars could be brought down to the surface of Mars from orbit. Furthermore, fuel created from water on the moons of Mars can be turned into fuel for the trip from Mars orbit to Earth orbit and back. This would be fuel which does not need to be lifted from either planet, making the return trip much simpler and creating significant savings in cost.

Even without the saving afforded by finding water on the moons of Mars, it would be cheaper to land people on the moons of Mars than to land people our own Moon, Luna (Earth's moon, the one we see in the sky at night). The reason for this is that, because of their low gravity, landing and taking off from the moons of Mars takes less energy than landing and taking off from Luna. If a structure similar to the international space station were located on the moons of Mars, it would have access to raw material which could be used to grow food, to recycle essential chemicals, and to create building material to expand the settelement. The lack of accesses to raw materials in space is one of the biggest obstacles facing the currently orbiting International Space Station.

Therefore, the first step to establishing a colony on Mars is to send one or more probes to the moons of Mars to see if they contain water in the form of subterranean ice. This probe would carry a camera, a laser altimeter, and a spectrograph. It would go into low orbit around Deimos or Phobos, take pictures, and use the altimeter to calculate the variations in the gravitational field by measuring dips in the orbit. This information would allow the density and the inner structure of the moons to be determined. This may reveal the presence of ice or metallic ores. The spectograph would be used to look for the existence of tenuous vapors around the moons which might be subliming off of deposits of volatiles deep inside the moons. These vapors would be excited by ultraviolet radiation from the sun and would give off light in a spectrum characteristic of the that type of vapor and would be used by the spectrometer to determine the vapor's composition.

The probe would then land on one of the moons after spending some time taking photographs and measurements from orbit. Depending on the amount of funding which we are able to raise we might attempt to drill into the regolith (soil) to look for signs of water. Otherwise, the lander would test the chemical properties of the surface soil and possibly return samples back to Earth. Other unmanned missions would be planned to answer questions raised by the first unmanned mission.

In order to plan and execute this first robotic mission we need funding and volunteers. We need people to help designing the probe and the experiments. We are looking for suggestions for experiments to include on the lander. We also are looking for suggestions for the name of the probe. We will publish feedback on this mission on a Mars Lunar Mission section of the website.
Step 1b -- Preparing for the first Manned Mission Updated Jan. 9, 2002
Before the first crew is sent to the moons of Mars, drilling equipment, equipment for oxygen production, earth moving equipment, habitat modules, and self contained greenhouses will be landed on the most suitable site on the Martian moons for building a manned base. Next, an interplanetary suttle will also be launched from Earth orbit to Mars, landed on that moon and launched back to low Earth obit. This will serve as a test flight of the interplanetary shuttle. After this is done, a second unmanned interplanetry shuttle will be launched toward Mars. Several weeks later, if the first shuttle is successfully on its way towards Mars, the first shuttle will be refuled, refurbished, resupplied, manned with a crew and launched towards Mars.
Step 2 -- The First Manned Mission to the Moons of Mars Updated Jan. 9, 2002
The first manned interplanetary shuttle will be launched only after the first backup shuttle is already on its way toward Mars. This unmanned shuttle will precede the manned shuttle to Mars orbit. It will then be landed on Deimos, and if the landing is successful, the manned shuttle will then also land. If the first shuttle does not land safely a decision must be made to either abort the mission and return to Earth without landing, or to proceed with the landing. A third shuttle, unmanned, might also be launched with supplies a be due to land a few weeks after the first shuttle. This would afford the crew added security.

The first crew will have several tasks. First of all, they will secure the habitat modules and possibly connect them together. These will then be covered with about a meter of regolith (soil) to shield the crew from cosmic rays and solar flares. The first greenhouse will also be positioned, filled with soil, watered, and planted with crops which grow in low gravity. During this time the crew will also be engaged in oxygen production by liberating oxygen from magnetic iron ores. This ore will be mined from the regolith by using mobile machines with large magnets, in an operation similar to extracting iron filing from the backyard sandbox using a hand held magnet. After the first part of the base is finished, drilling will begin with the goal of looking for volatiles.

Finding volatiles, such as water ice, would simplify the task of producing fuel because it is relatively easy to break water into hydrogen and oxygen using electrolysis. Otherwise, hydrogen will have to be brought from Earth. Nevertheless, hydrogen comprises only 11% of the weight of water and of fuel (hydrogen oxygen mixture). The other 81% is oxygen. Therefore, producing oxygen will greatly reduce transporation costs and base operations. Oxygen also comprises about 50% of dry food weight. Hydrogen could be stored in the form of methane, which is easier to store then liquid hydrogen which needs to be stored at extremely low temperatures near absolute zero. Oxygen, or water if found, could be exported to Earth orbit and sold to organizations involved in operating space stations or large satellites. In fact, it might even be economically feasible to purchase waste products from space stations in Earth orbit, recycle these waste products into food in the greenhouses on Deimos, transport the food back to Earth orbit and sell it at a profit. The reason for this is that it is much much cheaper to go from Earth orbit to Mars orbit and back than it is to go from the surface of the Earth to Earth orbit.
Step 3 -- The Colony on the Surface Mars Updated January 28, 2004
The shuttles will transport crews from earth orbit to the moons of Mars and will be completely reusable. Supplies will be lifted from Earth to low orbit using a vehicle similar to an upgraded Saturn V, and crews will be sent into orbit using either the same vehicle as supplies or a vehicle similar to the Space Shuttle but modified to make it more financially effective. The subsequent crews will begin the manufacture of glass and steel. This will be used to build more habitats and to build solar collectors to generate electricity. These will use thermal power to run steam engines or turbines which will in turn run electric generators.

At this point the venture would begin working on two different projects. One of these would be to send a team to the Martian surface using fuel generated on Diemos. The Mars lander would be fully fueled for a return trip back to Deimos. This team would stay a few weeks and start setting up a permanent Martian base using supplies previously deposited near the landing site. The principal goal of the first few missions would be to set up a large microwave antenna collector. In the meantime, people at the base on Deimos would start building a solar power satellite which would be placed in the Martian equivalent of geosynchronous orbit. It will beam down energy to the Martian surface in the form of a microwave beam where it will be received by the large antenna on the surface and converted into electricity. This electricity would be used to produce fuel on Mars for the return trip to Deimos. Once fuel production begins on Mars a transportation route will have been established which uses mostly native resources for fuel and energy. The only part of the fuel for a trip from Earth orbit to the surface of Mars and back which would have to be brought from Earth would be the hydrogen portion, which comprises only 11% of the total fuel mass. If water is found on Deimos or in permafrost near the Martian base, then all the fuel would be produced extraterrestrially. This would make passage to Mars nearly as cheap as passage to Earth orbit.

At some point, hopefully early on, it will become necessary to decrease the cost of reaching Earth orbit. The most economical way to do so with existing technology, is to build nuclear powered rockets. Such rockets use nuclear energy to heat hydrogen to high temperature and then eject it through an exhaust nossle. Since hydrogen is lighter than the water vapor and carbon dioxide produced by chemical rockets, less of it is needed to reach orbit. This savings in weight makes such rockets much more efficient. Furthermore, in orbit, the nuclear reactor can be used to create electricity to energize an ion rocket in order to reach Mars orbit. Ion rockets are extremely efficient rockets, and would make the trip from Earth orbit to Mars orbit much faster and much cheaper. Furthemore, nuclear rockets could land on Mars and use carbon dioxide straight from the atmosphere as a propellant for returning to orbit without the need to turn the carbon dioxide into fuel. This is because nuclear rockets can use carbon dioxide in the same way they use hydrogen on Earth. Using carbon dioxide as propellant is not nearly as efficient as using hydrogen, but since Mars gravity is less than Earth gravity, it is possible to escape from Mars using a less efficient, but much cheaper, propellant.
Step 4 -- Base Expansion and Permanent Settlement Updated Jan. 22, 2002
Growth of the Mars and Deimos bases would follow the establishment of a transportation route to Mars based on native resources. On Deimos, a structure similar to a torus shaped rotating space station would be built on a depression on the surface of that moon and covered with soil. The rotation would permit the creation of artificial gravity similar in strength to that on Earth. The soil would provide shielding from cosmic rays and solar flares. This would allow crews to remain indefinitely at the base without incurring any negative medical consequences.

On Mars, the base would be expanded initially using components manufactured on Deimos and Earth. A plastics industry would be quickly set up on Mars to turn carbon dioxide into useful products. The first task of the base crew after the establishment on fuel production would be to establish a supply of water. Water is known to exist on Mars at the north pole. However, a source of water closer to the equator would be much more accessible to the base. Recent photos from Mars have shown that such water exists as ice at some depth below the surface in the mid latitudes. Therfore, the crew would look for potential sites and establish drilling operations to reach the ice. Once water is found the base would begin to become self sufficient and persons might begin to chose to stay on Mars permanently.

Real questions asked by visitors to our site.
Spelling and grammar are uncorrected, exactly the way we recieved them.
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(1) Isn't it impossible to live on mars enless we all were filthy rich? Cost (#1) 11-15-01
(2) Who do you want going and how old does a person have to be to go? Emmigrants (#2) 12-10-01
(3) I would like to know if the offer you give is international. 12-10-01
The offer to register land on Mars and mineral rights on the Asteroids is, indeed, open to any resident of Earth.
(4) Can the "Land" be passed on to my heirs? 12-14-01
Absolutely, it can also be sold. However, the land needs to be re-registered every seven years. The reregistration fee is $20 plus 10% of the original registration fee.
(5) When do you think the first mission will be? It's objective? How about subsequent missions, and what will their objectives be? Mission Timing and Objectives (#5) 12-14-01
(6a) Did you know that mars' average temperature is -116 degrees F to 32 degrees? how do you plan to protect against this? Temperature (#6a), (6b) Also, do you realize that the gravity on mars is 0.37 times earth's, and therefore, when te person returns from Mars, they will be extremely weak compared to people who stayed on earth? Gravity (#6b), (6c) Another thought... mars is 35 million miles from Earth, minimum. How do plan to get 1 million people on Mars or one of it's moons with enough food, OXYGEN, WATER, fuel, and supplies out of the Earth's atmosphere and all the way to Mars, besides the fact that there is very little oxygen and water on mars, and you will most likely run out of food by the time you can raise food? Food (#6c), (6d) HOW CAN YOU POSSIBLY THINK TO MAKE A COLONY ON MARS!? It will take most likely more than 1 billion dollars, and without a GOOD plan that fullfills all of my concerns, I will keep thinking it is no more than a dream to land on mars, and most sensible people would too. Cost and Closing Remarks (#6d) 12-19-01
(7) What the hell are you smoking? Are you on crack? 12-20-01
I do not use drugs, I do not even drink alcohol. People will indeed live on Mars some day. In the future you might look back on this visit to our web site as a missed opportunity.
(8) Great idea. Lets go to Mars and exploit the resources, just like we did on this planet. And then, when Mars is too screwed up to live on, we can move to Venus. And then Saturn. And then... And then, when we run out of solar system, we can raise more money and build rockets to go to the next galaxy, and exploit their resources ... Wait a second. That isn't humanity I'm describing. It's a race of parasites. Human Parasites (#8) 12-24-01
(9) What person would be willing to go to Mars, knowing all the possible risks, and attempt to establish a base on Mars? Sure you'll find at least 12 people, but how many more after that? What happens IF the first mission is a failure, and people die? One wrong move could prove fatal. You would need experts and providers, such as NASA has. When do you plan to make this public? 1-5-02
Well, let's take a survey and find out.
E-mail us and let us know if you would be willing to be a member of the first crew and why. Click here to read testimonials from our crew volunteers. We will post the totals here (volunteers since Jan. 10, 2002 = 6 so far). We do plan to hire experts and "providers"(?) and plan to take every precaution to make sure that people do not die (see our plan above). Training and redundancy are the key to safety. This website is our attempt to make this plan public.
(10a) Is there any international law governing ownership of extra terrestrial land and resources? (10b) Why might it be advisable to send men on the first missions? 1-9-02
There is, sort of, but it does not seem to prevent private individuals from establishing a nation on Mars as we plan to do. Also, international law is basically a fiction. It only applies to nations that choose to incorporate these conventions into their own national laws. We would only send men on the first few missions because as a result of the rigours of the mission they would be conducted in a military style. Most armies and navies through out history have found by experience that groups working in close quarters under conditions of high stress work better when they are composed only of men. However, we would want to send women as soon as possible. By the time the first base became permanently occupied we would want it to be composed about equally of men and women. (More complete answer coming soon, please stay tuned!)
(11) I was just wondering--when you get to Mars, what if there are already other claims, or inhabitants? Have you made contingency plans for this possibility? 1-10-02
If there are already inhabitants on Mars representing a technologically advanced civilization, sorting out land claims will be the least of the problems facing mankind. Several groups have already claimed land on Mars, but the first group to get to Mars will have the best chance to enforce its claim. (More complete answer coming soon).
(12a) Even if you do get to Mars, how are you to enforce any kind of law there? Also if somebody else landed there just after you (if you ever did get there) with weapons, couldnt they just take over? Even if the gravity effects the logistics and speed of a bullet, whats to stop poisons, swords, knifes etc.? Martian Law (#12a) (12b) Furthermore what happens if somebody gets sick, or disease spreads? Disease (#12b) 1-27-02
(13) I find that very offensive that you would only include those of judeo-christian beliefs. Would you also only include white, heterosexual males? Loosers. Judeo-Christian Foundation (#13) 3-11-02

Mars Forum - Essays by People Holding Various Views.
Send us a well written and well thought out essay on Space Exploration and Mars Colonization and we will post it here.
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Martian Freedom -- Piotr Jagodzinski Posted July 12, 2002
Space Elevators -- Piotr Jagodzinski Posted July 12,2002

Facts about the planet Mars
Updated Dec. 22, 2001
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Size and Dimensions
Radius of Mars: 2109mi, 3380.0 km.
Surface Area of Mars: 56 million square miles, 144 million square kilometers, 36 billion acres. This is the same as the amount of land on Earth (57 million square miles). The Earth of course, is larger, but the oceans cover 139 million square miles.
Gravity on Mars: Gravity on Mars is 38% that of the Earth's. That means that a 150 pound person would weigh 57 pounds on Mars. Click here for a discussion about the effects of low Martian gravity on colonists and how to prevent permanent damage.
Atmospheric Composition: CO2 95%, N2 2.7%, Ar 1.6%, CO 0.6%, O2 0.15%, H2O 0.03%
Atmospheric Pressure: This varies depending on the distance of Mars from the sun. The pressure at the Viking Lander 2 site varied between 7.4 to 10.2 millibars. That is about 0.9% the pressure and density of the atmosphere on Earth at sea level and about the same as that on Earth at about 20 miles (32 km) in altitude.
Soil Composition at Pathfinder Site: O 44%, Si 20%, Fe 11%, Mn 6.4%, Mg 5.5%, Al 5.5%, Ca 3.4%, Na 3.2%, S 2.5%, P 1.0%, Ti 0.7%, Cl 0.6%, k 0.6%, Cr 0.3%
Click here to view a nice chart listing soil and rock elements by weight %.
Water on Mars: Click here for a discussion about places where water is found on Mars.
Climate and Temperature
Length of day and year: The Martian day lasts 24.6598 hours, (24 hours, 39 minutes, 35.3 seconds). Martian year lasts 686.98 Terran days, 668.60 Martian days.
Temperature on the Surface: Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer data shows that surface temperature varies from a high of about +20 degree Fahrenheit in the lower latitudes to about a low of about -200 degrees Fahrenheit at the poles. The temperature at the Pathfinder site varied between -60 at night to 20 during early afternoon during the first few days of the Pathfinder misssion. Lowest measured temperature on Earth is -120 in Antarctica. Click here for a discussion about surviving the intense cold on Mars.
Distance from Sun and Seasons: Earth average distance from sun is 152 million km. Mars is 245 million km from sun at its farthest poin (1.61 x Earth), and 207 million km at its closest (1.36 x Earth). Mars has an excentric orbit, so it is closest to the sun during the southern summer and farther from the sun during the souther winter. This gives the southern hemisphere a more extreme climate, making summers warmer and winters colder than in the north. The northern hemisphere has a more constant temperature with warmer winters and cooler summers. It is probably the cooler summers that make the northern ice cap the reservoir of water ice. Whatever water condenses in the southern ice cap during the southern winter evaporates during the warm southern summers and migrates to the north. The warmer brighter summers would make agriculture easier in the south, but the winters would be more intolerable. Therefore, farming communities might develop in the southern hemisphere while the larger population centers might develop in the north where temperatures are more constant. Of course, Mars is cold everywhere (see above).
Inclination of Equator to Orbit: Mars is spining at an angle very similar to that of the Earth giving Mars seasons. A person standing on Mars would see the sun at an angle similar to that on Earth during the same time and season. However, the sun would be 2/3 as large, and half bright. Inclination of Earth to its orbit is 23.45 deg, and for Mars it is25.20 deg.
(More facts added every day) stay tuned!

Things you can do
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More than anything, we need input, volunteers, and donations. Everything takes money. If you like what you see, please consider even a small donation. Click Here for more information about making donations. We also could use the services of lawyers, economists, and aerospace engineers. We also are looking for science writers interested in publishing articles in our magazine, the Mars Quarterly, which should be out in the first part of next year.

Let us know what you like about our website and tell us what you think it need in order to improve its content and appearance. Please E-mail us your questions and suggestions to martian chief
Please link us to your web page! Place a link to on your web page. That will generate traffic for us and will help us get listed on some of the major search engines, some of which use number of links to a page as an indicator of its value.
Do you speak a language other than English? We would like to translate the Martian Declaration into as many languages as possible. We would be happy to have volunteers translate it for us and send it to us via e-mail. If you wish to do this, please indicate, in English, what language is being used in the translation. If you can translate the Declaration into a language that does not use a European alphabet perhaps you could write it on a piece of paper, scan it, and send it as an e-mail attachment.

Why NASA Will Never Send People to Mars
Updated Dec. 04, 2001
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Recent NASA decisions show us that government lacks the leadership to go to Mars. Dec 02, 2001
NASA answers to two groups of people, congressmen and lobbyists. Lobbyists represent the large aero-space corporations, who, ultimately, are the principle constituents of NASA, rather than the citizens of our country. I hate to say that, since I am a conservative and like big business; nevertheless, it is the truth. The more expensive and complex is a project, the more money these companies make. These companies are not necessarily evil, they simply have no motivation to present cheap plans to NASA since they would make less money on these projects. Furthermore, making a product cheaper and more efficient means spending money on research. Therefore, not only would such projects make less money, they cost more company resources, are more complex, and have higher risk. Congressmen also like large expensive projects because they create lots of "pork-barrel" jobs for their constituents. For the same amount of money, research creates jobs for less people because researchers are more expensive to hire. Since votes are rightfully apportioned by head (one per person), not by intelligence, congressmen naturally favor projects which create the most jobs for the money. These two forces biases NASA towards complex, expensive, but inefficient and uncreative projects. Two examples illustrate this point.

The space shuttle is unnecessarily expensive and complex. The space shuttle is a hybrid vehicle. Unlike biology, one frequent characteristic of hybrid human designs is that they are not as good as either one of the products they combine. Examples of such products which failed are the car-plane, the video-phone, and the many hybrid products shown on late night TV. The space shuttle is neither a good rocket nor a good airplane. The structural components which allow its descent to be controlled (such as wings, rudder, and landing gear) add to its weight and limit the amount of payload which it can lift into orbit. The complexity of its shape makes construction and maintenance unnecessarily expensive. For example, every single heat tile on the shuttle has a unique design, which means that each tile is custom made, making impossible the savings afforded by mass production.

The International Space Station (ISS) serves no useful purpose. There are no resources in orbit except sunlight, a great view, hard vacuum, and weightlessness. Since there are no material resources in low Earth orbit all food and supplies must be lifted from Earth at an enormous cost. The purpose of ISS is not to produce electricity or to take pictures of the Earth, these tasks can be performed much more cheaply and effectively by an unmanned satellite. The purpose of ISS is to commercialize the benefits of weightlessness and to study its effects on the human body. However, we already know the effects of several months of weightlessness on the human body, and it is unlikely that any manned trips in the next few decades will last more than several months. Any trips of longer duration will probably use artificial gravity produced by rotating the space ship. The commercial benefits of weightlessness appear to be somewhat limited, consisting mainly of the growing of specialized crystals and the manufacture of ultra-pure materials. However, vibrations created by the movement of humans can disrupt these processes. Therefore, these processes can be best exploited using robotic orbiting labs which may be controlled from earth. Furthermore, such labs would be much cheaper than manned orbiting labs.

The most valuable resources of space lie in the planets of the solar system, their moons, and the asteroids and comets. The resources used to build and operate the space shuttle and the international space station could have gotten us a long way towards establishing a partially self-supporting colony on Mars, its moons, or an asteroid.

The history modern exploration shows us that government lacks the kind of leadership necessary to go to Mars. Dec 04, 2001
Much of the expansion of the European peoples and culture which occurred during the last 500 years was spearheaded by the effort of individuals or small enterprises. Christopher Columbus was a single man with a dream. He was hugely more successful than the Portuguese king Henry the Navigator whose voyages around Africa preceded those of Columbus. The Spanish conquistadores, for better or for worse, were individuals on a quest. These early conquests were sanctioned by the Spanish kings, but the design and drive behind these ventures were the dreams of individual entrepreneurs.

Many of the original British colonies in North America started as commercial ventures of small associations of merchant adventurers, which were the stock issuing corporations of the day. The British influence in India began with the presence of the British East India company, a commercial venture. The armies followed the traders. Even Hawaii was taken over by a small group of businessmen and plantation owners.

Of course, where humans go evil goes mixed with the good. We do not endorse all the methods used in the expansion of the European people. However, we now face an opportunity to colonize and exploit uninhabited and unclaimed lands full of unmeasurable wealth. We will attempt to do it a justly and equitably as possible. However, both ancient and recent history suggest that governments such as the United States or the United Nations will not be the driving force behind the colonization of space, our new frontier.